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Superabsorbent Polymers from South Korea Injures U.S. Industry, Says USITC - US International Trade Commission
The United States International Trade Commission (USITC) today determined that a U.S. industry is materially injured by reason of imports of superabsorbent polymers from South Korea that the U.S. Department of Commerce (Commerce) has determined are sold in the United States at less than fair value.
Chairman David S. Johanson and Commissioners Rhonda K. Schmidtlein, Jason E. Kearns, Randolph J. Stayin, and Amy A. Karpel voted in the affirmative.
As a result of the Commission’s affirmative determination, Commerce will issue an antidumping duty order on imports of this product from South Korea.
The Commission’s public report Superabsorbent Polymers from South Korea (Inv. No. 731-TA-1574 (Final), USITC Publication 5388, December 2022) will contain the views of the Commission and information developed during the investigation.
The report will be available by January 2, 2023; when available, it may be accessed on the USITC website at:
Washington, DC 20436
Superabsorbent Polymers from South Korea
Investigation No. 731-TA-1574 (Final)
Product Description: The merchandise covered by this investigation is superabsorbent polymers (SAP), which is cross-linked sodium polyacrylate most commonly conforming to Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) registry number 9003-04-7, where at least 90 percent of the dry matter, by weight on a nominal basis, corrected for moisture content, is comprised of a polymer with a chemical formula of (C3H3O2NaxH1-x)n, where x is within a range of 0.00-1.00 and there is no limit to n. The subject merchandise also includes merchandise with a chemical formula of {(C2H3)COONayH(1-y)}n, where y is within a range of 0.00-1.00 and there is no limit to n. The subject merchandise includes SAP which is fully neutralized as well as SAP that is not fully neutralized. The subject merchandise may also conform to other CAS numbers. All forms and sizes of SAP, regardless of packaging type, including but not limited to granules, pellets, powder, fibers, flakes, liquid, or gel are within this investigation. It also includes SAP whether or not it incorporates additives for anticaking, anti-odor, anti-yellowing, or similar functions. The investigation also includes SAP that is combined, commingled, or mixed with other products after final sieving. For such combined products, only the SAP component is covered in this investigation.  
Status of Proceedings:
1. Type of investigation: Final antidumping duty investigation.
2. Petitioners: Ad Hoc Coalition of American SAP Producers, whose members include BASF Corporation, Florham Park, NJ; Evonik Superabsorber LLC, Greensboro, NC; and Nippon Shokubai America Industries, Inc., Pasadena, TX.
3. USITC Institution Date: Tuesday, November 02, 2021.
4. USITC Hearing Date: Tuesday, October 18, 2022.
5. USITC Vote Date: Thursday, November 17, 2022.
6. USITC Notification to Commerce Date: Thursday, December 08, 2022.
U.S. Industry in 2021:
1. Number of U.S. producers: 3.
2. Location of producers’ plants: Louisiana, North Carolina, and Texas.
3. Production and related workers: 1
4. U.S. producers’ U.S. shipments: $580 million.
5. Apparent U.S. consumption: 1
6. Ratio of subject imports to apparent U.S. consumption: 1
U.S. Imports in 2021:
1. Subject imports: 1
2. Nonsubject imports: 1
3. Leading import sources: South Korea, the European Union, Canada, and Japan.
1 Withheld to avoid disclosure of business proprietary information.
Federal Register Notices:
• Investigations; Determinations, Modifications, and Rulings, etc.: Certain Electronic Devices, Semiconductor Devices, and Components Thereof Institution of Investigation
• Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Investigations, Orders, or Reviews: Welded Line Pipe From the Republic of Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Final Determination of No Shipments; 2020-2021
• Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Investigations, Orders, or Reviews: Large Diameter Welded Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2020-2021
• Common Alloy Aluminum Sheet From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Partial Recission of Antidumping Administrative Review; 2021-2022
• Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the Republic of Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2020-2022
• Investigations; Determinations, Modifications, and Rulings, etc.: Certain High-Density Fiber Optic Equipment and Components Thereof; Notice of a Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the Enforcement Proceeding Based on a Settlement Agreement; Termination of the Enforcement Proceeding
• Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Investigations, Orders, or Reviews: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2021-2022
• Certain Softwood Lumber Products From Canada: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review
• Final Affirmative Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Emulsion Styrene-Butadiene Rubber From the Czech Republic: Final Affirmative Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value
• Emulsion Styrene-Butadiene Rubber From the Russian Federation: Final Affirmative Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Classification of the Russian Federation as a Non-Market Economy
• Investigations; Determinations, Modifications, and Rulings, etc.: Certain Outdoor and Semi-Outdoor Electronic Displays, Products Containing Same, and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Decision Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the Investigation as to a Respondent and Granting Complainant's Motion To Amend the Complaint and Notice of Investigation
• Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Investigations, Orders, or Reviews: Polyethylene Terephthalate Sheet From the Sultanate of Oman: Notice of Initiation of Changed Circumstances Review and Consideration of Revocation of the Antidumping Duty Order
• Investigations; Determinations, Modifications, and Rulings, etc.: Oil Country Tubular Goods From Argentina, Mexico, Russia, and South Korea
• Certain Freight Rail Couplers and Parts Thereof From China and Mexico
USC Issues Final Rule on Regulations in 19 CFR 102.20 and 102.21 - Federal Register/ USCBP
AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security.
ACTION: Final rule; technical corrections.
SUMMARY: This document sets forth technical corrections to U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) regulations to reflect recent changes in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States. The affected provisions, which are based in part on specified changes in tariff classification, comprise a codified system used for determining: the country of origin for marking purposes for goods imported under the Agreement Between the United States of America, the United Mexican States, and Canada (USMCA); determining the country of origin of imported goods for the purposes specified in paragraph 1 of Annex 311 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) for outstanding pending NAFTA claims; determining whether an imported good is a new or different article of commerce under the United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement and the United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement; and for determining the country of origin of textile and apparel products (other than those of Israel).
DATES: The final rule is effective on November 15, 2022.
U.S. Department of Commerce Revokes Russia's Market Economy Status in Antidumping Proceedings - International Trade Administration
WASHINGTON – Today (11/10/22), the U.S. Department of Commerce announced that it will no longer treat Russia as a market economy in its antidumping (AD) proceedings. This decision gives the United States the ability to apply the full force of the U.S. AD law to address the market distortions caused by increasing interference from the Russian government in their economy.
Based on a balanced evaluation of facts and in line with U.S. law, this decision will ensure that Commerce’s dumping calculations reflect economic realities on the ground and that U.S. industries get the relief from unfair imports that they are entitled to under the law. This decision is an important acknowledgement of the rise of Russian state-influence in their economy, which puts U.S. industries at a disadvantage when trying to compete globally.
Commerce’s analysis found that extensive government involvement in the economy has led to distorted prices and costs in Russia, which do not accurately reflect whether Russian companies are fairly pricing imports into the United States. As a result of today’s decision, in future cases involving imports from Russia, Commerce will apply an alternative methodology to calculate the AD duties on imports from Russia, using market-based prices and costs from a country at a comparable level of economic development that produces comparable merchandise. This will enable Commerce to more effectively address Russian unfair trade practices, which harm U.S. manufacturers
Commerce’s market and non-market economy determinations are based on a thorough evaluation of specific criteria set out in U.S. law: currency convertibility, how wages are determined, the climate for foreign investment, government control of the means of production, government control over firm business decisions, and any other appropriate considerations. In its decision, Commerce found extensive backtracking in these areas, particularly since the invasion of Ukraine. Commerce’s determination is based on an in-depth analysis of research from impartial, third-party sources. Commerce’s decision can be found by referring to case number A-821-835 in Commerce’s Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Centralized Electronic Service System (ACCESS).
Whether At Home or Traveling for the Holidays CPSC Reminds Parents to Keep Babies’ Sleep Space Safe - Consumer Product Safety Commission
CPSC Joins Members of Congress, Safety Advocates at Chicago Lurie Children’s Hospital

WASHINGTON, D.C. – With the holiday season fast approaching and families preparing to gather, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is teaming up with members of Congress and safety advocates to remind adults to keep the little ones safe – whether at home or at grandma’s house – by always creating a safe sleep space.
Chair Alex Hoehn-Saric joined pediatric experts from Lurie Children’s Hospital and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), child safety advocates from Kids in Danger (KID), Safe Kids Worldwide, and Consumer Federation of America, and Members of Congress to raise awareness of the best safe sleep practices for babies and highlight new laws and regulations aimed at creating a safer marketplace to keep all babies safe.
“I’m excited to be working alongside these trusted collaborators to expand our reach and provide parents, grandparents, and caregivers with the best safe sleep practices for their babies during the holidays and all year,” said CPSC Chair Alex Hoehn-Saric. “Together we can reduce these tragic deaths and injuries and create a safer marketplace.”
This event was held following a year of aggressive Congressional and CPSC action to protect babies from product hazards. These steps include:
• Infant Sleep Products Rule. CPSC’s Infant Sleep Products Rule went into effect in June 2022, and requires all new infant sleep products to have a sleep surface angle of 10 degrees or lower and to meet at least one of the existing standards for sleep products: bassinets and cradles, play yards, or cribs.
Since the rule went into effect, CPSC has sent more than 125 letters to businesses to alert them of their obligation to comply with the new requirements; and, in more than 70 instances, specific infant sleep products were identified that could be subject to the rule. Subsequently, 26 products were removed from sale, helping to protect consumers. Additionally, CPSC has recently issued a notice to one firm, Dock-a-tot, for manufacturing a non-compliant infant sleep product after June 23, 2022, an apparent violation of the ISP rule.
• Safe Sleep for Babies Act. CPSC has written to retailers, including e-commerce platforms, urging them to comply with the requirements of the Safe Sleep for Babies Act, which was enacted into law this summer, and goes into effect on November 12th. The Act bans padded crib bumpers and inclined sleep products, regardless of date of manufacture. Last week, CPSC wrote to 45 retailers urging them to comply with these requirements with respect to crib bumpers, and CPSC will be monitoring the market for inclined products.

• Additional safety measures. In addition to these steps forward on infant sleep products, major steps were taken to improve the marketplace for baby safety. Congress recently enacted Reese’s Law, aimed at protecting children from hazardous button cell batteries. CPSC also issued final rules establishing safety standards for crib mattresses, magnets, window coverings, and clothing storage units.
“Being a new parent can be hard enough and keeping our newborns safe is a goal we all share. Thanks to the dedication of my colleagues, the dynamic leadership of U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission Chair Alex Hoehn-Saric, and the urgency to protect our children, President Biden was able to sign into law multiple pieces of legislation that will protect babies and promote safe sleep practices,” said Congresswoman Jan Schakowsky. “Nearly 200 deaths have been linked to crib bumpers and infant inclined sleep products. Thanks to the Safe Sleep for Babies Act, which I introduced with Rep. Tony Cárdenas, these dangerous products will be banned, providing families with the peace of mind they deserve when purchasing new products for their newborns.”
“I’m glad CPSC Chair Alex Hoehn-Saric will be traveling to Chicago to raise awareness around the dangers families may not be aware of during the holiday season,” said Congresswoman Robin Kelly. “Recent CPSC actions against infant sleeping products have been key to ensuring businesses are removing harmful products and babies are kept safe. Additionally, while the recent passage of my bill, Reese’s Law, will help ensure future products with button batteries are safer; many homes have remotes, holiday decorations, and toys that contain button batteries and can be easily opened, and pose life threatening injuries if the batteries are ingested.”
CPSC’s latest nursery product injury and death report shows most nursery-product infant deaths occurred in a cluttered sleep space, when soft bedding was added to the cribs, playpens/play yards or bassinets/cradles. On average there are almost 100 infant deaths annually in unsafe sleep environments involving nursery products. CPSC is reminding caregivers to follow these practices to keep babies’ sleep space safe:
1. Back to Sleep: Always place the baby to sleep on their back to reduce the risk of sudden unexpected infant death syndrome (SUID/SIDS) and suffocation.
2. Bare is Best: Always keep the baby’s sleep space bare (fitted sheet only) to prevent suffocation. Do not use pillows, padded crib bumpers, quilts or comforters.
3. Transfer the baby to a firm, flat crib, bassinet, play yard or bedside sleeper if they fall asleep in a swing, bouncer, lounger, or similar product.
4. Inclined products, such as rockers, gliders, soothers, and swings should never be used for infant sleep, and infants should not be left in these products unsupervised, unrestrained, or with soft bedding material, due to the risk of suffocation.
RECALLS: Always check to see if any purchased baby nursery products have been recalled, which includes any secondhand products. Remember, babies rely on adults to keep them safe. Sign up today at
USITC Releases Report Cataloging the Distributional Effects of Trade and Trade Policy on Underrepresented and Underserved Communities - US International Trade Commission
The U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) today released a report cataloging information on the distributional effects of trade and trade policy on underrepresented and underserved communities.
The investigation, Distributional Effects of Trade and Trade Policy on U.S. Workers (Inv. No. 332-587), was requested by the U.S. Trade Representative in a letter received on October 14, 2021.
As requested, the USITC, an independent nonpartisan factfinding federal agency, gathered information through roundtable discussions among representatives of underrepresented or underserved communities, a symposium focused on academic and similar research on the distributional effects of trade and trade policy, and a review of economic literature on this topic. The Commission also accepted written submissions and conducted a public hearing in connection with the investigation.
The information in this report includes, but is not limited to:
• a summary of seven roundtable discussions in which participants discussed their perspectives and experiences of the impact of trade, trade policy, and other events on underserved and underrepresented communities;
• a catalogue of information collected through written submissions and a public hearing held to supplement the roundtables;
• a critical review and detailed assessment of academic and policy research examining the distributional effects of trade, which identifies gaps in the data and literature, and indicates where improvements to the coverage of and access to datasets could improve analysis of the distributional effects on underrepresented or underserved communities; and
• an overview of a two-day academic symposium where participants discussed the methodologies and data gaps involved in researching distributional trade effects, as well as relevant research underway on these effects globally.
Detailed highlights of the Commission’s findings can be found in the report’s Executive Summary.
USITC general factfinding investigations cover matters related to tariffs or trade and are generally conducted at the request of the U.S. Trade Representative, the House Committee on Ways and Means, or the Senate Committee on Finance. The resulting reports convey the Commission's objective findings and independent analyses on the subjects investigated. The Commission makes no recommendations on policy or other matters in its general factfinding reports. Upon completion of each investigation, the USITC submits its findings and analyses to the requester. General factfinding investigation reports are subsequently released to the public, unless they are classified by the requester for national security reasons.
Port of Los Angeles Cargo Volume Remains Soft - Port of Los Angeles
SAN PEDRO, Calif. – Nov. 15, 2022 – Cargo volume at the Port of Los Angeles dropped in October as the Port handled 678,429 Twenty-Foot Equivalent Units (TEUs), a 25% decrease from October 2021. The Port of Los Angeles has processed 8,542,944 TEUs during the first 10 months of 2022, about 6% down from last year’s record pace.
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CPSC Warns Consumers to Immediately Stop Using “My Bouncer Little Castle” Bounce Houses Due to Strangulation Risk; Death of 4-Year-Old Boy Reported - Consumer Product Safety Commission
WASHINGTON, D.C. -- The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is warning consumers about the risk of entrapment and strangulation presented by inflatable bounce houses with a hoop sold under the name “My Bouncer Little Castle” on,, and other online retailers.
CPSC is aware of one fatal incident where a four-year old boy was found with the hoop of the bounce house around his neck. The hoop became entangled and twisted, constricting the boy’s airway, resulting in strangulation and death. The agency is also aware of one additional report of a child being entrapped in the hoop but avoiding injury.
The bounce houses have a yellow hoop attached to a green pillar inside the main bounce house. The hoops were tested and failed to meet the ASTM voluntary standard intended to reduce the risk of accidental head or neck entrapment in inflatable play devices.
The bounce houses measure 88 inches long, 118 inches wide and 72 inches high. They have been sold since at least April 2013 under the name “My Bouncer Little Castle”, or a similar name, for between $100 to $200.
CPSC urges consumers not to purchase or sell these bounce houses and to stop using and dispose of these products immediately. Report a dangerous product or a product-related injury on

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